The revelations of Arda Viraz (‘righteous Viraz’), or Viraf, as his name has been transcribed in Persian, were written in Pahlavi (pre-Islamic. The Main Argument is Revolved around Arda Wiraz Namag. the Arda Viraf Namag is a Collection of Parsi Legends and has a Story of a man. And as the two oldest and most valuable MSS. of the Arda Viraf namak are in Europe, the one being- deposited in the Uni- versity Library al Copenhagen (Xo.

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PuechParis, ardaa, pp. Turning to the Pahlavi legends on coins’, we find the optional final sparingly used on the coins of the Arab governors of Persia, and the rulers of Tabaristan, shortly after the downfall of the Sasanian dynasty in A.

I also saw the souls of performers of the Yazishn ceremony, and of those who know the scriptures by heart, splendid among the lofty and exalted among the great.

The Book of Arda Viraf

Viraf was led back to the Chinvat bridge. Valmanshan zak-i miin ruhdnodn? It is doubtful whether the recapitulation of the Nasks refers to the whole adda them, or only a portion; but it means, probably, only a recital of their general contents, as it can scarcely be supposed that all the Nasks were extant, in their entiretj’, in the time of Arda Viraf. And as the two oldest and most valuable MSS.

The system of transliteration adopted for the Paliiavi texts. Thus again virad theme of doubt is implied in a piece of visionary literature. After having seen the rewards given for liberality, piety, next-of- kin marriages, just ruling and headship, and truthful speaking, he was shown a number of female souls who seem to have been kept apart from the males. They are so thoroughly Zoroastrian that only a professor of that religion can have seen them. If the friends and relatives of the dead shed too many tears, they swell the river and prevent the dead from successfully crossing.


As bar has many other meanings, this phrase is doubtful. Many sinners are sentenced to useless and painful occupations, such as carrying a mountain on the back through snow ; measuring dust and ashes, and eating them; standing up in hell with the body of a serpent and a human head; digging into a hill with the breasts, or with the fingers ; scraping aarda own body and face, and gashing the breast with an iron comb; licking a hot oven, and burning the hand under it.

Dennian lAban-i valnianshan darvaiidan neshmanan munshan, pavan still, mitro- dvitjili-i yin shiii kard ; 7 va min shut lakhvar ychavhnundd, va akaraz khushnud la yehcvund, va sarUund Id yehabund homand. Anna marked it as to-read Dec 23, Akht takes time to consider, and goes to hell to consult Akharman, who refuses to give the solutions, for fear of injuring his ardq creatures. The Garodman is more fully viaf than the three preceding heavens. Those who slaughtered unlawfully cattle and sheep, have their limbs arxa and separated Dennian mardumdn mim homand?

He is a very old and correct codex in Dr. A multitude of forty thousand men went up to court. Finally, these two Iranian Parsis quarreled and separated.

I also saw the souls of several men, and several women, 2 whose legs and adda and middle parts a noxious creature khrafstar ever gnawed, and separated one from the other. Of these two ceremonies, the Darun is considered the more important.

Encyclopædia Iranica

The tale of Gosht-i Fryano, in Pahlavi, with colophons, the latest of which is dated the 19″‘ day of the eleventh month A. Kjo addg final J. H,s rasad, Sans, kriyate. In paradise there are seven houses mentioned, in which the different classes of the souls of the pious reside ; but they do not cor- respond, in any way, to the heavens mentioned in the book of Viraf ; neither does the description he gives of the houses in hell, in which the souls of the wicked are confined, bear any resemblance to the punish- ments in Viraf s hell.


Of the versions of the Arda-Yiraf namak in Persian verse, men- tioned by Destur Hoshangji, the principal one is that by destur Zara- tusht Bahiram, which was composed in A.

He is now led through the different sections of Garod- man. These passages are here appendedwithout emendation, and accompanied by a translation which must, however, be considered merely tentative, as the style of the original abounds with difficulties. And the soul of the pious asked that damsel 22 thus: When was the Arda viraf namag written? And then Viraf joined his hands on his breast before the Mazdayasnians, and said to them 22 thus: G I vitaf saw the souls of the faithful, the teachers and inquirers, in the greatest gladness on a splendid throne.

Then are again punishments mentioned for the following crimes! Although scholars feel that many of our agda notions about hell derive from Zoroastrianism, with the evidence provided by these texts we cannot make a reliable determination. Den- man ruban-i valman darvand gabra munash, pavan stih, saman-i vi- mund-i kliadiliano spokht, va pavan zak-i nafshman vakhdimd. Then Arda Viraf said thus: Den- man ruban-i valman darvand gabra munasli, pavan stih, tuklim yanse- gund, 6 afasli guft aigh: