something that has internal origin. In response to this theory, Andre Gunder Frank in propounded his. “dependency theory which saw the world’s nations as. J Vol. XIV No. 3 September Dependency Theory: A Review Article. James L. Dietz. Both Fernando Henrique Cardoso and Andre Gunder Frank have been. In response to this theory, Andre Gunder Frank in propounded his “ dependency theory which saw the world’s nations as divided into a.

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It was used to explain the causes of overurbanizationa theory that urbanization rates outpaced industrial growth in several developing countries.

Simpson and Sinclair point out that MNCs now dominate the capitalist world economy and anndre have greater economic and political power than LDCs. Development economics World systems theory.

Cycle time plays an important role. This view argues that dependency is not just a phase, but rather a permanent position. Dependency theorists hold that short-term spurts of growth notwithstanding, long-term growth in the periphery will be imbalanced and unequal, and will tend towards high negative current account balances.

In the s, members of the Latin American Structuralist school argued that there is more latitude in the system than the Marxists believed. Skip to main content.

Using the Latin American dependency model, the Guyanese Marxist historian Walter Rodneyin his book How Europe Underdeveloped Africadescribed in an Africa that had been consciously exploited by European imperialists, leading directly to the modern underdevelopment of most of the continent. Foreign capital could not solve the problem, since it only led to limited transmission of technology, but not the process of innovation itself.

Dependency theory

Neo-colonialism Frank and others such as Therese Hayter argue that traditional forms of colonialism are giving way to new forms: Baran and others frequently spoke of the international division of labour — skilled workers in the center; unskilled in the periphery — when discussing key features of dependency.

LDC governments may find themselves pressurised into accepting MNC investment, into making internal political changes and ensuring LDC support for Western strategic interests, e.

By using this site, depencency agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. This article is about an international relations theory. Frank also suggests a socialist revolution may be necessary in some LDCs to overcome the ruling classes who collaborate with the West. Criticisms of dependency theory John Goldthorpe and other liberals have argued that colonialism did have positive benefits because it provided LDCs with a basic infrastructure in terms of transport and communications.


As a result of the unequal distribution of power and resources, some countries have developed at a faster pace than others. A level sociology revision — education, families, research methods, crime and deviance and more! Additionally, he states that we tend to believe that their history tends to resemble the history of the more developed countries and that such assumptions lead to misconceptions about contemporary development and underdevelopment.

Dependency theory – Sociology Revision

Modern constructivism Post-modern constructivism Feminist constructivism. Kenya was rewarded with aid for providing US forces with port facilities during the Gulf War. Archived from the original on 27 August This meant that whole populations had effectively gone from growing their own food and producing their own goods, to earning wages from growing and harvesting sugar, tea, or coffee for export back to Europe.

The theory arose as a reaction to modernization theoryan earlier theory of development which held that all societies progress through similar stages of development, that today’s underdeveloped areas are thus in a similar situation to that of today’s developed areas at some time in the past, and that, therefore, the task of helping the underdeveloped areas out of poverty is to accelerate them along this supposed common path of development, by various means such as investmenttechnology transfersand closer integration into the world market.

Former Brazilian Farnk Fernando Henrique Cardoso in office — wrote extensively on dependency theory while in political exile during the s, arguing that it was an approach to studying the economic disparities between the centre and periphery.

Baran noted two predominant kinds of economic activity in poor countries. The rise of one depemdency of semi-peripheries tends to be at the cost of another group, but the unequal structure of the world economy based on unequal deependency tends to remain stable. He argues that the causes of underdevelopment cannot be reduced to a history of exploitation. A Quantitative, Cross-National Analysis.

The improvement of India ‘s economy after it moved from state-controlled business to open trade is one of the most often cited see also economy of IndiaThe Commanding Heights. In the meantime, the interest builds up and can eventually outstrip the initial loan.

Such poor countries are locked into a system that is almost impossible for them to escape. Additionally, Frank rejects the development belief promoted by Rostow that an accurate way to explain development is to look at the past experiences of countries in North America and Europe.

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Exploitation continued via neo-colonialism — which describes a situation where European powers no longer have direct political control over countries in Latin America, Asia and Africa, but they continue to exploit them economically in more subtle ways.


Matt is also interested in history, philosophy, comparative religion, and record collecting. As a result of this some colonies actually became frsnk on their thoery masters for food imports, which of course resulted in even more profit for the colonial powers as this food had to be purchased with the scant wages earnt by the colonies.

Implications ftank a Global Model”. Social Change and Development: According to Frank, developed nations actually fear the development of poorer countries because their development threatens the dominance and prosperity of the West.

Dependency theory no longer has many proponents as an overall theory, though some writers have argued for its continuing relevance as a conceptual orientation to the global division dependecny wealth. Dependency theory is the notion that resources flow from a “periphery” of poor and underdeveloped states to a “core” of wealthy statesenriching the latter at the expense of the former.

Andre Gunder Frank & Dependency Theory | Our Politics

Official aid Another form of neo-colonialism according dependwncy dependency theory is official aid. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. In Africa, states which have emphasized import-substitution ansre, such as Zimbabwehave typically been among the worst performers, while the continent’s most successful non-oil based economies, such as EgyptSouth Africaand Tunisiahave pursued trade-based development.

This page was last edited on 2 Decemberat According to Frank the main period of colonial expansion was from to when European powers, with Britain to the fore, used their superior naval and military technology to conquer and colonise most of the rest of the world.

The third-world debt crisis of the s and continued stagnation in Africa and Latin America in the s caused some doubt as to the feasibility or desirability of “dependent development”. On the other hand, Frank believes that anrre such views creates numerous misconceptions and prevents an accurate view of contemporary development from emerging.

On the structure of the present-day convergence. The Marxist, Frank Warren argues that colonialism and neo-colonialism were, on balance, conducive to development rather than under-development. Baran placed surplus extraction and capital accumulation at the center of his analysis.

It was precisely this process that Ghandi resisted as the leading figure of the Indian Independence movement.